TT No. 566: PS14: Oil Palm Breeding Population Selected for High Protein Kernel

The livestock industry in Malaysia is growing in importance. Due to lack of local production, the industry relies heavily on the import of raw feed ingredients such as maize, soyabean and other grains. Monogastric animals such as cattle and poultry (Figures 1 and 2), the main consumers of these feed grain, suffer high production cost […]

TS No. 154: Measurement on Biodegradation of Poorly Water-soluble Materials

Biodegradability is one of the most important parameters for the environmental fate of a substance. There are three types of biodegradation process: Primary biodegradation is the measurement of conversion of an organic substance into different products by biological system. This is the first step in biodegradation. Readily biodegradation occurs when biodegradation performance is greater than […]

TS No. 153: Determination of Isopropyl P-Toluenesulphonic Acid Ester in Cosmetic Products

Isopropyl p-toluenesulphonic acid esters (IPTS) is a by-product that may be formed during synthesis of isopropyl palmitate (IPP) and isopropyl myristate (IPM). The synthesis route is via esterification of palmbased palmitic and palm kernel-based myristic acids, by reaction with isopropanol. Under certain reaction conditions (anhydrous, no base and high temperature) isopropyl alcohol may react with […]